# JavaScriptクロージャはどのように機能しますか？

7633
Zaheer Ahmed 2008-09-22 04:12.

JavaScriptクロージャを構成する概念（関数、変数など）を知っているが、クロージャ自体を理解していない人に、JavaScriptクロージャをどのように説明しますか？

ウィキペディアで提供されているSchemeの例を見たことがありますが、残念ながら役に立ちませんでした。

7575
Ben Aston 2008-09-22 04:18.

クロージャは次の組み合わせです。

1. 関数、および
2. その関数の外部スコープへの参照（字句環境）

JavaScriptのすべての関数は、その外部の字句環境への参照を維持します。この参照は、関数が呼び出されたときに作成される実行コンテキストを構成するために使用されます。この参照により、関数が呼び出されるタイミングと場所に関係なく、関数内のコードが関数外で宣言された変数を「見る」ことができます。

function foo() {
const secret = Math.trunc(Math.random()*100)
return function inner() {
console.log(The secret number is ${secret}.) } } const f = foo() // secret is not directly accessible from outside foo f() // The only way to retrieve secret, is to invoke f 言い換えると、JavaScriptでは、関数はプライベートな「状態のボックス」への参照を持ち、そこにのみ（および同じ字句環境内で宣言された他の関数）がアクセスできます。この状態のボックスは、関数の呼び出し元には表示されず、データの非表示とカプセル化のための優れたメカニズムを提供します。 また、JavaScriptの関数は変数（ファーストクラス関数）のように渡すことができます。つまり、これらの機能と状態の組み合わせをプログラムに渡すことができます。これは、C ++でクラスのインスタンスを渡す方法と同じです。 JavaScriptにクロージャーがない場合は、関数間でより多くの状態を明示的に渡す必要があり、パラメーターリストが長くなり、コードのノイズが大きくなります。 したがって、関数が常にプライベートな状態にアクセスできるようにする場合は、クロージャを使用できます。 ...と頻繁に私達はない機能を備えた自由連合にしたいです。たとえば、JavaまたはC ++では、プライベートインスタンス変数とメソッドをクラスに追加すると、状態と機能が関連付けられます。 Cおよび他のほとんどの一般的な言語では、関数が戻った後、スタックフレームが破棄されるため、すべてのローカル変数にアクセスできなくなります。JavaScriptでは、別の関数内で関数を宣言すると、外部関数のローカル変数は、関数から戻った後もアクセス可能なままになります。このように、上記のコードでは、から返されたsecret、関数オブジェクトinnerで引き続き使用できます。foo ## クロージャの使用 クロージャは、関数に関連付けられたプライベート状態が必要な場合に役立ちます。これは非常に一般的なシナリオです。覚えておいてください。JavaScriptには2015年までクラス構文がなく、プライベートフィールド構文もありません。クロージャはこのニーズを満たします。 ### プライベートインスタンス変数 次のコードでは、関数toStringは車の詳細を閉じます。 function Car(manufacturer, model, year, color) { return { toString() { return ${manufacturer} ${model} (${year}, ${color}) } } } const car = new Car('Aston Martin','V8 Vantage','2012','Quantum Silver') console.log(car.toString()) ### 関数型プログラミング 次のコードでは、関数innerfnとの両方を閉じますargs function curry(fn) { const args = [] return function inner(arg) { if(args.length === fn.length) return fn(...args) args.push(arg) return inner } } function add(a, b) { return a + b } const curriedAdd = curry(add) console.log(curriedAdd(2)(3)()) // 5 ### イベント指向プログラミング 次のコードでは、関数onClickは変数を閉じますBACKGROUND_COLOR const$ = document.querySelector.bind(document)
const BACKGROUND_COLOR = 'rgba(200,200,242,1)'

function onClick() {
$('body').style.background = BACKGROUND_COLOR }$('button').addEventListener('click', onClick)
<button>Set background color</button>

### モジュール化

let namespace = {};

(function foo(n) {
let numbers = []
function format(n) {
return Math.trunc(n)
}
function tick() {
numbers.push(Math.random() * 100)
}
function toString() {
return numbers.map(format)
}
n.counter = {
tick,
toString
}
}(namespace))

const counter = namespace.counter
counter.tick()
counter.tick()
console.log(counter.toString())

## 例

### 例1

この例は、ローカル変数がクロージャにコピーされていないことを示しています。クロージャは、元の変数自体への参照を維持します。これは、外部関数が終了した後も、スタックフレームがメモリ内で存続しているようです。

function foo() {
let x = 42
let inner  = function() { console.log(x) }
x = x+1
return inner
}
var f = foo()
f() // logs 43

### 例2

そして、createObjectが呼び出されるたびに、新しい実行コンテキスト（スタックフレーム）が作成され、完全に新しい変数xと、logこの新しい変数を閉じる新しい関数のセット（など）が作成されます。

function createObject() {
let x = 42;
return {
log() { console.log(x) },
increment() { x++ },
update(value) { x = value }
}
}

const o = createObject()
o.increment()
o.log() // 43
o.update(5)
o.log() // 5
const p = createObject()
p.log() // 42

### 例3

を使用して宣言された変数を使用している場合はvar、どの変数を閉じるかを理解するように注意してください。を使用しvarて宣言された変数は引き上げられます。これは、の導入にそれほど現代JavaScriptで問題のあるletconst

function foo() {
var result = []
for (var i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
result.push(function inner() { console.log(i) } )
}
return result
}

const result = foo()
// The following will print 3, three times...
for (var i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
result[i]()
}

## 最後のポイント：

• JavaScriptで関数が宣言されるたびに、クロージャが作成されます。
• function別の関数の内部からを返すことは、クロージャの典型的な例です。外部関数の内部の状態は、外部関数の実行が完了した後でも、返された内部関数で暗黙的に使用できるためです。
• eval()関数内で使用する場合は常に、クロージャが使用されます。eval関数のローカル変数を参照できるテキスト。非厳密モードでは、を使用して新しいローカル変数を作成することもできますeval('var foo = …')
• 関数内でnew Function(…)（関数コンストラクター）を使用すると、字句環境では閉じられません。代わりに、グローバルコンテキストで閉じられます。新しい関数は、外部関数のローカル変数を参照できません。
• A closure in JavaScript is like keeping a reference (NOT a copy) to the scope at the point of function declaration, which in turn keeps a reference to its outer scope, and so on, all the way to the global object at the top of the scope chain.
• A closure is created when a function is declared; this closure is used to configure the execution context when the function is invoked.
• A new set of local variables is created every time a function is called.

• Douglas Crockford's simulated private attributes and private methods for an object, using closures.
• A great explanation of how closures can cause memory leaks in IE if you are not careful.
• MDN documentation on JavaScript Closures.
4022
Ali 2008-09-22 05:16.

Every function in JavaScript maintains a link to its outer lexical environment. A lexical environment is a map of all the names (eg. variables, parameters) within a scope, with their values.

So, whenever you see the function keyword, code inside that function has access to variables declared outside the function.

function foo(x) {
var tmp = 3;

function bar(y) {
console.log(x + y + (++tmp)); // will log 16
}

bar(10);
}

foo(2);

This will log 16 because function bar closes over the parameter x and the variable tmp, both of which exist in the lexical environment of outer function foo.

Function bar, together with its link with the lexical environment of function foo is a closure.

A function doesn't have to return in order to create a closure. Simply by virtue of its declaration, every function closes over its enclosing lexical environment, forming a closure.

function foo(x) {
var tmp = 3;

return function (y) {
console.log(x + y + (++tmp)); // will also log 16
}
}

var bar = foo(2);
bar(10); // 16
bar(10); // 17

The above function will also log 16, because the code inside bar can still refer to argument x and variable tmp, even though they are no longer directly in scope.

However, since tmp is still hanging around inside bar's closure, it is available to be incremented. It will be incremented each time you call bar.

The simplest example of a closure is this:

var a = 10;

function test() {
console.log(a); // will output 10
console.log(b); // will output 6
}
var b = 6;
test();

When a JavaScript function is invoked, a new execution context ec is created. Together with the function arguments and the target object, this execution context also receives a link to the lexical environment of the calling execution context, meaning the variables declared in the outer lexical environment (in the above example, both a and b) are available from ec.

Every function creates a closure because every function has a link to its outer lexical environment.

Note that variables themselves are visible from within a closure, not copies.

2476
Jacob Swartwood 2011-06-25 08:49.

FOREWORD: this answer was written when the question was:

Like the old Albert said : "If you can't explain it to a six-year old, you really don't understand it yourself.”. Well I tried to explain JS closures to a 27 years old friend and completely failed.

Can anybody consider that I am 6 and strangely interested in that subject ?

I'm pretty sure I was one of the only people that attempted to take the initial question literally. Since then, the question has mutated several times, so my answer may now seem incredibly silly & out of place. Hopefully the general idea of the story remains fun for some.

I'm a big fan of analogy and metaphor when explaining difficult concepts, so let me try my hand with a story.

Once upon a time:

There was a princess...

function princess() {


She lived in a wonderful world full of adventures. She met her Prince Charming, rode around her world on a unicorn, battled dragons, encountered talking animals, and many other fantastical things.

    var adventures = [];

function princeCharming() { /* ... */ }

var unicorn = { /* ... */ },
dragons = [ /* ... */ ],
squirrel = "Hello!";

/* ... */


But she would always have to return back to her dull world of chores and grown-ups.

    return {


And she would often tell them of her latest amazing adventure as a princess.

        story: function() {
}
};
}


But all they would see is a little girl...

var littleGirl = princess();


...telling stories about magic and fantasy.

littleGirl.story();


And even though the grown-ups knew of real princesses, they would never believe in the unicorns or dragons because they could never see them. The grown-ups said that they only existed inside the little girl's imagination.

But we know the real truth; that the little girl with the princess inside...

...is really a princess with a little girl inside.

766
dlaliberte 2011-09-03 05:23.

Taking the question seriously, we should find out what a typical 6-year-old is capable of cognitively, though admittedly, one who is interested in JavaScript is not so typical.

On Childhood Development: 5 to 7 Years it says:

Your child will be able to follow two-step directions. For example, if you say to your child, "Go to the kitchen and get me a trash bag" they will be able to remember that direction.

We can use this example to explain closures, as follows:

The kitchen is a closure that has a local variable, called trashBags. There is a function inside the kitchen called getTrashBag that gets one trash bag and returns it.

We can code this in JavaScript like this:

function makeKitchen() {
var trashBags = ['A', 'B', 'C']; // only 3 at first

return {
getTrashBag: function() {
return trashBags.pop();
}
};
}

var kitchen = makeKitchen();

console.log(kitchen.getTrashBag()); // returns trash bag C
console.log(kitchen.getTrashBag()); // returns trash bag B
console.log(kitchen.getTrashBag()); // returns trash bag A

Further points that explain why closures are interesting:

• Each time makeKitchen() is called, a new closure is created with its own separate trashBags.
• The trashBags variable is local to the inside of each kitchen and is not accessible outside, but the inner function on the getTrashBag property does have access to it.
• Every function call creates a closure, but there would be no need to keep the closure around unless an inner function, which has access to the inside of the closure, can be called from outside the closure. Returning the object with the getTrashBag function does that here.
595
jondavidjohn 2013-02-27 09:40.

# The Straw Man

I need to know how many times a button has been clicked and do something on every third click...

## Fairly Obvious Solution

// Declare counter outside event handler's scope
var counter = 0;
var element = document.getElementById('button');

// Increment outside counter
counter++;

if (counter === 3) {
// Do something every third time
console.log("Third time's the charm!");

// Reset counter
counter = 0;
}
});
<button id="button">Click Me!</button>

Now this will work, but it does encroach into the outer scope by adding a variable, whose sole purpose is to keep track of the count. In some situations, this would be preferable as your outer application might need access to this information. But in this case, we are only changing every third click's behavior, so it is preferable to enclose this functionality inside the event handler.

## Consider this option

var element = document.getElementById('button');

// init the count to 0
var count = 0;

return function(e) { // <- This function becomes the click handler
count++; //    and will retain access to the above count

if (count === 3) {
// Do something every third time
console.log("Third time's the charm!");

//Reset counter
count = 0;
}
};
})());
<button id="button">Click Me!</button>

Notice a few things here.

In the above example, I am using the closure behavior of JavaScript. This behavior allows any function to have access to the scope in which it was created, indefinitely. To practically apply this, I immediately invoke a function that returns another function, and because the function I'm returning has access to the internal count variable (because of the closure behavior explained above) this results in a private scope for usage by the resulting function... Not so simple? Let's dilute it down...

A simple one-line closure

//          _______________________Immediately invoked______________________
//         |                                                                |
//         |        Scope retained for use      ___Returned as the____      |
//         |       only by returned function   |    value of func     |     |
//         |             |            |        |                      |     |
//         v             v            v        v                      v     v
var func = (function() { var a = 'val'; return function() { alert(a); }; })();


All variables outside the returned function are available to the returned function, but they are not directly available to the returned function object...

func();  // Alerts "val"
func.a;  // Undefined


Get it? So in our primary example, the count variable is contained within the closure and always available to the event handler, so it retains its state from click to click.

Also, this private variable state is fully accessible, for both readings and assigning to its private scoped variables.

There you go; you're now fully encapsulating this behavior.

Full Blog Post (including jQuery considerations)

504

Closures are hard to explain because they are used to make some behaviour work that everybody intuitively expects to work anyway. I find the best way to explain them (and the way that I learned what they do) is to imagine the situation without them:

const makePlus = function(x) {
return function(y) { return x + y; };
}

const plus5 = makePlus(5);
console.log(plus5(3));

What would happen here if JavaScript didn't know closures? Just replace the call in the last line by its method body (which is basically what function calls do) and you get:

console.log(x + 3);


Now, where's the definition of x? We didn't define it in the current scope. The only solution is to let plus5 carry its scope (or rather, its parent's scope) around. This way, x is well-defined and it is bound to the value 5.

385
Ben 2008-09-22 04:20.

TLDR

A closure is a link between a function and its outer lexical (ie. as-written) environment, such that the identifiers (variables, parameters, function declarations etc) defined within that environment are visible from within the function, regardless of when or from where the function is invoked.

Details

In the terminology of the ECMAScript specification, a closure can be said to be implemented by the [[Environment]] reference of every function-object, which points to the lexical environment within which the function is defined.

When a function is invoked via the internal [[Call]] method, the [[Environment]] reference on the function-object is copied into the outer environment reference of the environment record of the newly-created execution context (stack frame).

In the following example, function f closes over the lexical environment of the global execution context:

function f() {}


In the following example, function h closes over the lexical environment of function g, which, in turn, closes over the lexical environment of the global execution context.

function g() {
function h() {}
}


If an inner function is returned by an outer, then the outer lexical environment will persist after the outer function has returned. This is because the outer lexical environment needs to be available if the inner function is eventually invoked.

In the following example, function j closes over the lexical environment of function i, meaning that variable x is visible from inside function j, long after function i has completed execution:

function i() {
var x = 'mochacchino'
return function j() {
console.log('Printing the value of x, from within function j: ', x)
}
}

const k = i()
setTimeout(k, 500) // invoke k (which is j) after 500ms

In a closure, the variables in the outer lexical environment themselves are available, not copies.

function l() {
var y = 'vanilla';

return {
setY: function(value) {
y = value;
},
logY: function(value) {
console.log('The value of y is: ', y);
}
}
}

const o = l()
o.logY() // The value of y is: vanilla
o.setY('chocolate')
o.logY() // The value of y is: chocolate

The chain of lexical environments, linked between execution contexts via outer environment references, forms a scope chain and defines the identifiers visible from any given function.

Please note that in an attempt to improve clarity and accuracy, this answer has been substantially changed from the original.

384
Max Tkachenko 2013-06-07 00:22.

OK, 6-year-old closures fan. Do you want to hear the simplest example of closure?

Let's imagine the next situation: a driver is sitting in a car. That car is inside a plane. Plane is in the airport. The ability of driver to access things outside his car, but inside the plane, even if that plane leaves an airport, is a closure. That's it. When you turn 27, look at the more detailed explanation or at the example below.

Here is how I can convert my plane story into the code.

var plane = function(defaultAirport) {

var lastAirportLeft = defaultAirport;

var car = {
driver: {
startAccessPlaneInfo: function() {
setInterval(function() {
console.log("Last airport was " + lastAirportLeft);
}, 2000);
}
}
};
car.driver.startAccessPlaneInfo();

return {
leaveTheAirport: function(airPortName) {
lastAirportLeft = airPortName;
}
}
}("Boryspil International Airport");

plane.leaveTheAirport("John F. Kennedy");

367
dlaliberte 2010-04-09 03:54.

This is an attempt to clear up several (possible) misunderstandings about closures that appear in some of the other answers.

• A closure is not only created when you return an inner function. In fact, the enclosing function does not need to return at all in order for its closure to be created. You might instead assign your inner function to a variable in an outer scope, or pass it as an argument to another function where it could be called immediately or any time later. Therefore, the closure of the enclosing function is probably created as soon as the enclosing function is called since any inner function has access to that closure whenever the inner function is called, before or after the enclosing function returns.
• A closure does not reference a copy of the old values of variables in its scope. The variables themselves are part of the closure, and so the value seen when accessing one of those variables is the latest value at the time it is accessed. This is why inner functions created inside of loops can be tricky, since each one has access to the same outer variables rather than grabbing a copy of the variables at the time the function is created or called.
• The "variables" in a closure include any named functions declared within the function. They also include arguments of the function. A closure also has access to its containing closure's variables, all the way up to the global scope.
• Closures use memory, but they don't cause memory leaks since JavaScript by itself cleans up its own circular structures that are not referenced. Internet Explorer memory leaks involving closures are created when it fails to disconnect DOM attribute values that reference closures, thus maintaining references to possibly circular structures.
237
Nathan Long 2011-02-08 10:57.

I wrote a blog post a while back explaining closures. Here's what I said about closures in terms of why you'd want one.

Closures are a way to let a function have persistent, private variables - that is, variables that only one function knows about, where it can keep track of info from previous times that it was run.

In that sense, they let a function act a bit like an object with private attributes.

Full post:

So what are these closure thingys?

216
Matt 2013-06-26 12:22.

## Closures are simple:

The following simple example covers all the main points of JavaScript closures.*

Here is a factory that produces calculators that can add and multiply:

function make_calculator() {
var n = 0; // this calculator stores a single number n
return {
n += a;
return n;
},
multiply: function(a) {
n *= a;
return n;
}
};
}

first_calculator = make_calculator();
second_calculator = make_calculator();

first_calculator.multiply(11); // returns 33
second_calculator.multiply(10); // returns 4000


The key point: Each call to make_calculator creates a new local variable n, which continues to be usable by that calculator's add and multiply functions long after make_calculator returns.

If you are familiar with stack frames, these calculators seem strange: How can they keep accessing n after make_calculator returns? The answer is to imagine that JavaScript doesn't use "stack frames", but instead uses "heap frames", which can persist after the function call that made them returns.

Inner functions like add and multiply, which access variables declared in an outer function**, are called closures.

That is pretty much all there is to closures.

* For example, it covers all the points in the "Closures for Dummies" article given in another answer, except example 6, which simply shows that variables can be used before they are declared, a nice fact to know but completely unrelated to closures. It also covers all the points in the accepted answer, except for the points (1) that functions copy their arguments into local variables (the named function arguments), and (2) that copying numbers creates a new number, but copying an object reference gives you another reference to the same object. These are also good to know but again completely unrelated to closures. It is also very similar to the example in this answer but a bit shorter and less abstract. It does not cover the point of this answer or this comment, which is that JavaScript makes it difficult to plug the current value of a loop variable into your inner function: The "plugging in" step can only be done with a helper function that encloses your inner function and is invoked on each loop iteration. (Strictly speaking, the inner function accesses the helper function's copy of the variable, rather than having anything plugged in.) Again, very useful when creating closures, but not part of what a closure is or how it works. There is additional confusion due to closures working differently in functional languages like ML, where variables are bound to values rather than to storage space, providing a constant stream of people who understand closures in a way (namely the "plugging in" way) that is simply incorrect for JavaScript, where variables are always bound to storage space, and never to values.

** Any outer function, if several are nested, or even in the global context, as this answer points out clearly.

205
Magne 2014-02-18 11:14.

How I'd explain it to a six-year-old:

You know how grown-ups can own a house, and they call it home? When a mom has a child, the child doesn't really own anything, right? But its parents own a house, so whenever someone asks the child "Where's your home?", he/she can answer "that house!", and point to the house of its parents. A "Closure" is the ability of the child to always (even if abroad) be able to say it has a home, even though it's really the parent's who own the house.

201
Chris S 2010-04-20 22:16.

## Can you explain closures to a 5-year-old?*

I still think Google's explanation works very well and is concise:

/*
*    When a function is defined in another function and it
*    the outer function returns.
*
* An important concept to learn in JavaScript.
*/

var someString = 'Hey!';
var content = document.getElementById('content');
function innerFunction() {
content.innerHTML = someNum + ': ' + someString;
content = null; // Internet Explorer memory leak for DOM reference
}
innerFunction();
}

outerFunction(1);​


*A C# question

178
Chev 2013-06-20 10:45.

I tend to learn better by GOOD/BAD comparisons. I like to see working code followed by non-working code that someone is likely to encounter. I put together a jsFiddle that does a comparison and tries to boil down the differences to the simplest explanations I could come up with.

## Closures done right:

console.log('CLOSURES DONE RIGHT');

var arr = [];

function createClosure(n) {
return function () {
return 'n = ' + n;
}
}

for (var index = 0; index < 10; index++) {
arr[index] = createClosure(index);
}

for (var index in arr) {
console.log(arr[index]());
}

• In the above code createClosure(n) is invoked in every iteration of the loop. Note that I named the variable n to highlight that it is a new variable created in a new function scope and is not the same variable as index which is bound to the outer scope.

• This creates a new scope and n is bound to that scope; this means we have 10 separate scopes, one for each iteration.

• createClosure(n) returns a function that returns the n within that scope.

• Within each scope n is bound to whatever value it had when createClosure(n) was invoked so the nested function that gets returned will always return the value of n that it had when createClosure(n) was invoked.

## Closures done wrong:

console.log('CLOSURES DONE WRONG');

function createClosureArray() {

for (var index = 0; index < 10; index++) {
return 'n = ' + index;
};
}
}

for (var index in badArr) {
}

• In the above code the loop was moved within the createClosureArray() function and the function now just returns the completed array, which at first glance seems more intuitive.

• What might not be obvious is that since createClosureArray() is only invoked once only one scope is created for this function instead of one for every iteration of the loop.

• Within this function a variable named index is defined. The loop runs and adds functions to the array that return index. Note that index is defined within the createClosureArray function which only ever gets invoked one time.

• Because there was only one scope within the createClosureArray() function, index is only bound to a value within that scope. In other words, each time the loop changes the value of index, it changes it for everything that references it within that scope.

• All of the functions added to the array return the SAME index variable from the parent scope where it was defined instead of 10 different ones from 10 different scopes like the first example. The end result is that all 10 functions return the same variable from the same scope.

• After the loop finished and index was done being modified the end value was 10, therefore every function added to the array returns the value of the single index variable which is now set to 10.

## Result

CLOSURES DONE RIGHT
n = 0
n = 1
n = 2
n = 3
n = 4
n = 5
n = 6
n = 7
n = 8
n = 9

CLOSURES DONE WRONG
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10
n = 10

165
mykhal 2011-07-31 04:27.

Wikipedia on closures:

In computer science, a closure is a function together with a referencing environment for the nonlocal names (free variables) of that function.

Technically, in JavaScript, every function is a closure. It always has an access to variables defined in the surrounding scope.

Since scope-defining construction in JavaScript is a function, not a code block like in many other languages, what we usually mean by closure in JavaScript is a function working with nonlocal variables defined in already executed surrounding function.

Closures are often used for creating functions with some hidden private data (but it's not always the case).

var db = (function() {
// Create a hidden object, which will hold the data
// it's inaccessible from the outside.
var data = {};

// Make a function, which will provide some access to the data.
return function(key, val) {
if (val === undefined) { return data[key] } // Get
else { return data[key] = val } // Set
}
// We are calling the anonymous surrounding function,
// returning the above inner function, which is a closure.
})();

db('x')    // -> undefined
db('x', 1) // Set x to 1
db('x')    // -> 1
// It's impossible to access the data object itself.
// We are able to get or set individual it.


ems

The example above is using an anonymous function, which was executed once. But it does not have to be. It can be named (e.g. mkdb) and executed later, generating a database function each time it is invoked. Every generated function will have its own hidden database object. Another usage example of closures is when we don't return a function, but an object containing multiple functions for different purposes, each of those function having access to the same data.

136

I put together an interactive JavaScript tutorial to explain how closures work. What's a Closure?

Here's one of the examples:

var create = function (x) {
var f = function () {
return x; // We can refer to x here!
};
return f;
};
// 'create' takes one argument, creates a function

var g = create(42);
// g is a function that takes no arguments now

var y = g();
// y is 42 here

131
Tero Tolonen 2015-05-12 06:35.

The children will always remember the secrets they have shared with their parents, even after their parents are gone. This is what closures are for functions.

The secrets for JavaScript functions are the private variables

var parent = function() {
var name = "Mary"; // secret
}


Every time you call it, local variable "name" is created and given name "Mary". And every time the function exits the variable is lost and the name is forgotten.

As you may guess, because the variables are re-created every time the function is called, and nobody else will know them, there must be a secret place where they are stored. It could be called Chamber of Secrets or stack or local scope but it doesn't really matter. We know they are there, somewhere, hidden in the memory.

But, in JavaScript there is this very special thing that functions which are created inside other functions, can also know the local variables of their parents and keep them as long as they live.

var parent = function() {
var name = "Mary";
var child = function(childName) {
// I can also see that "name" is "Mary"
}
}


So, as long as we are in the parent -function, it can create one or more child functions which do share the secret variables from the secret place.

But the sad thing is, if the child is also a private variable of its parent function, it would also die when the parent ends, and the secrets would die with them.

So to live, the child has to leave before it's too late

var parent = function() {
var name = "Mary";
var child = function(childName) {
return "My name is " + childName  +", child of " + name;
}
return child; // child leaves the parent ->
}
var child = parent(); // < - and here it is outside


And now, even though Mary is "no longer running", the memory of her is not lost and her child will always remember her name and other secrets they shared during their time together.

So, if you call the child "Alice", she will respond

child("Alice") => "My name is Alice, child of Mary"


That's all there is to tell.

105
floribon 2015-02-14 09:39.

I do not understand why the answers are so complex here.

Here is a closure:

var a = 42;

function b() { return a; }


Yes. You probably use that many times a day.

There is no reason to believe closures are a complex design hack to address specific problems. No, closures are just about using a variable that comes from a higher scope from the perspective of where the function was declared (not run).

Now what it allows you to do can be more spectacular, see other answers.

93
someisaac 2010-04-20 22:10.

Example for the first point by dlaliberte:

A closure is not only created when you return an inner function. In fact, the enclosing function does not need to return at all. You might instead assign your inner function to a variable in an outer scope, or pass it as an argument to another function where it could be used immediately. Therefore, the closure of the enclosing function probably already exists at the time that enclosing function was called since any inner function has access to it as soon as it is called.

var i;
function foo(x) {
var tmp = 3;
i = function (y) {
console.log(x + y + (++tmp));
}
}
foo(2);
i(3);

91
Rakesh Pai 2008-09-22 11:39.

A closure is where an inner function has access to variables in its outer function. That's probably the simplest one-line explanation you can get for closures.

86
Gerardo Lima 2012-05-04 08:16.

I know there are plenty of solutions already, but I guess that this small and simple script can be useful to demonstrate the concept:

// makeSequencer will return a "sequencer" function
var makeSequencer = function() {
var _count = 0; // not accessible outside this function
var sequencer = function () {
return _count++;
}
return sequencer;
}

var fnext = makeSequencer();
var v0 = fnext();     // v0 = 0;
var v1 = fnext();     // v1 = 1;
var vz = fnext._count // vz = undefined

82
StewShack 2011-07-20 17:51.

You're having a sleep over and you invite Dan. You tell Dan to bring one XBox controller.

Dan invites Paul. Dan asks Paul to bring one controller. How many controllers were brought to the party?

function sleepOver(howManyControllersToBring) {

var numberOfDansControllers = howManyControllersToBring;

return function danInvitedPaul(numberOfPaulsControllers) {
var totalControllers = numberOfDansControllers + numberOfPaulsControllers;
}
}

var howManyControllersToBring = 1;

var inviteDan = sleepOver(howManyControllersToBring);

// The only reason Paul was invited is because Dan was invited.
// So we set Paul's invitation = Dan's invitation.

var danInvitedPaul = inviteDan(howManyControllersToBring);

alert("There were " + danInvitedPaul + " controllers brought to the party.");

80
Arvand 2015-08-16 03:38.

The author of Closures has explained closures pretty well, explaining the reason why we need them and also explaining LexicalEnvironment which is necessary to understanding closures.
Here is the summary:

What if a variable is accessed, but it isn’t local? Like here:

In this case, the interpreter finds the variable in the outer LexicalEnvironment object.

The process consists of two steps:

1. First, when a function f is created, it is not created in an empty space. There is a current LexicalEnvironment object. In the case above, it’s window (a is undefined at the time of function creation).

When a function is created, it gets a hidden property, named [[Scope]], which references the current LexicalEnvironment.

If a variable is read, but can not be found anywhere, an error is generated.

Nested functions

Functions can be nested one inside another, forming a chain of LexicalEnvironments which can also be called a scope chain.

Closures

A nested function may continue to live after the outer function has finished:

Marking up LexicalEnvironments:

As we see, this.say is a property in the user object, so it continues to live after User completed.

And if you remember, when this.say is created, it (as every function) gets an internal reference this.say.[[Scope]] to the current LexicalEnvironment. So, the LexicalEnvironment of the current User execution stays in memory. All variables of User also are its properties, so they are also carefully kept, not junked as usually.

The whole point is to ensure that if the inner function wants to access an outer variable in the future, it is able to do so.

To summarize:

1. The inner function keeps a reference to the outer LexicalEnvironment.
2. The inner function may access variables from it any time even if the outer function is finished.
3. The browser keeps the LexicalEnvironment and all its properties (variables) in memory until there is an inner function which references it.

This is called a closure.

78
John Pick 2011-02-24 15:37.

JavaScript functions can access their:

1. Arguments
2. Locals (that is, their local variables and local functions)
3. Environment, which includes:
• globals, including the DOM
• anything in outer functions

If a function accesses its environment, then the function is a closure.

Note that outer functions are not required, though they do offer benefits I don't discuss here. By accessing data in its environment, a closure keeps that data alive. In the subcase of outer/inner functions, an outer function can create local data and eventually exit, and yet, if any inner function(s) survive after the outer function exits, then the inner function(s) keep the outer function's local data alive.

Example of a closure that uses the global environment:

Imagine that the Stack Overflow Vote-Up and Vote-Down button events are implemented as closures, voteUp_click and voteDown_click, that have access to external variables isVotedUp and isVotedDown, which are defined globally. (For simplicity's sake, I am referring to StackOverflow's Question Vote buttons, not the array of Answer Vote buttons.)

When the user clicks the VoteUp button, the voteUp_click function checks whether isVotedDown == true to determine whether to vote up or merely cancel a down vote. Function voteUp_click is a closure because it is accessing its environment.

var isVotedUp = false;
var isVotedDown = false;

function voteUp_click() {
if (isVotedUp)
return;
else if (isVotedDown)
SetDownVote(false);
else
SetUpVote(true);
}

function voteDown_click() {
if (isVotedDown)
return;
else if (isVotedUp)
SetUpVote(false);
else
SetDownVote(true);
}

function SetUpVote(status) {
isVotedUp = status;
// Do some CSS stuff to Vote-Up button
}

function SetDownVote(status) {
isVotedDown = status;
// Do some CSS stuff to Vote-Down button
}


All four of these functions are closures as they all access their environment.

60
grateful 2014-10-29 13:53.

As a father of a 6-year-old, currently teaching young children (and a relative novice to coding with no formal education so corrections will be required), I think the lesson would stick best through hands-on play. If the 6-year-old is ready to understand what a closure is, then they are old enough to have a go themselves. I'd suggest pasting the code into jsfiddle.net, explaining a bit, and leaving them alone to concoct a unique song. The explanatory text below is probably more appropriate for a 10 year old.

function sing(person) {

var firstPart = "There was " + person + " who swallowed ";

var fly = function() {
var creature = "a fly";
var result = "Perhaps she'll die";
alert(firstPart + creature + "\n" + result);
};

var spider = function() {
var creature = "a spider";
var result = "that wiggled and jiggled and tickled inside her";
alert(firstPart + creature + "\n" + result);
};

var bird = function() {
var creature = "a bird";
var result = "How absurd!";
alert(firstPart + creature + "\n" + result);
};

var cat = function() {
var creature = "a cat";
var result = "Imagine That!";
alert(firstPart + creature + "\n" + result);
};

fly();
spider();
bird();
cat();
}

sing(person);


INSTRUCTIONS

DATA: Data is a collection of facts. It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things. You can't touch it, smell it or taste it. You can write it down, speak it and hear it. You could use it to create touch smell and taste using a computer. It can be made useful by a computer using code.

CODE: All the writing above is called code. It is written in JavaScript.

JAVASCRIPT: JavaScript is a language. Like English or French or Chinese are languages. There are lots of languages that are understood by computers and other electronic processors. For JavaScript to be understood by a computer it needs an interpreter. Imagine if a teacher who only speaks Russian comes to teach your class at school. When the teacher says "все садятся", the class would not understand. But luckily you have a Russian pupil in your class who tells everyone this means "everybody sit down" - so you all do. The class is like a computer and the Russian pupil is the interpreter. For JavaScript the most common interpreter is called a browser.

BROWSER: When you connect to the Internet on a computer, tablet or phone to visit a website, you use a browser. Examples you may know are Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox and Safari. The browser can understand JavaScript and tell the computer what it needs to do. The JavaScript instructions are called functions.

FUNCTION: A function in JavaScript is like a factory. It might be a little factory with only one machine inside. Or it might contain many other little factories, each with many machines doing different jobs. In a real life clothes factory you might have reams of cloth and bobbins of thread going in and T-shirts and jeans coming out. Our JavaScript factory only processes data, it can't sew, drill a hole or melt metal. In our JavaScript factory data goes in and data comes out.

All this data stuff sounds a bit boring, but it is really very cool; we might have a function that tells a robot what to make for dinner. Let's say I invite you and your friend to my house. You like chicken legs best, I like sausages, your friend always wants what you want and my friend does not eat meat.

I haven't got time to go shopping, so the function needs to know what we have in the fridge to make decisions. Each ingredient has a different cooking time and we want everything to be served hot by the robot at the same time. We need to provide the function with the data about what we like, the function could 'talk' to the fridge, and the function could control the robot.

A function normally has a name, parentheses and braces. Like this:

function cookMeal() {  /*  STUFF INSIDE THE FUNCTION  */  }


Note that /*...*/ and // stop code being read by the browser.

NAME: You can call a function just about whatever word you want. The example "cookMeal" is typical in joining two words together and giving the second one a capital letter at the beginning - but this is not necessary. It can't have a space in it, and it can't be a number on its own.

PARENTHESES: "Parentheses" or () are the letter box on the JavaScript function factory's door or a post box in the street for sending packets of information to the factory. Sometimes the postbox might be marked for example cookMeal(you, me, yourFriend, myFriend, fridge, dinnerTime), in which case you know what data you have to give it.

BRACES: "Braces" which look like this {} are the tinted windows of our factory. From inside the factory you can see out, but from the outside you can't see in.

THE LONG CODE EXAMPLE ABOVE

Our code begins with the word function, so we know that it is one! Then the name of the function sing - that's my own description of what the function is about. Then parentheses (). The parentheses are always there for a function. Sometimes they are empty, and sometimes they have something in. This one has a word in: (person). After this there is a brace like this { . This marks the start of the function sing(). It has a partner which marks the end of sing() like this }

function sing(person) {  /* STUFF INSIDE THE FUNCTION */  }


So this function might have something to do with singing, and might need some data about a person. It has instructions inside to do something with that data.

Now, after the function sing(), near the end of the code is the line

var person="an old lady";


VARIABLE: The letters var stand for "variable". A variable is like an envelope. On the outside this envelope is marked "person". On the inside it contains a slip of paper with the information our function needs, some letters and spaces joined together like a piece of string (it's called a string) that make a phrase reading "an old lady". Our envelope could contain other kinds of things like numbers (called integers), instructions (called functions), lists (called arrays). Because this variable is written outside of all the braces {}, and because you can see out through the tinted windows when you are inside the braces, this variable can be seen from anywhere in the code. We call this a 'global variable'.

GLOBAL VARIABLE: person is a global variable, meaning that if you change its value from "an old lady" to "a young man", the person will keep being a young man until you decide to change it again and that any other function in the code can see that it's a young man. Press the F12 button or look at the Options settings to open the developer console of a browser and type "person" to see what this value is. Type person="a young man" to change it and then type "person" again to see that it has changed.

After this we have the line

sing(person);


This line is calling the function, as if it were calling a dog

"Come on sing, Come and get person!"

When the browser has loaded the JavaScript code an reached this line, it will start the function. I put the line at the end to make sure that the browser has all the information it needs to run it.

Functions define actions - the main function is about singing. It contains a variable called firstPart which applies to the singing about the person that applies to each of the verses of the song: "There was " + person + " who swallowed". If you type firstPart into the console, you won't get an answer because the variable is locked up in a function - the browser can't see inside the tinted windows of the braces.

CLOSURES: The closures are the smaller functions that are inside the big sing() function. The little factories inside the big factory. They each have their own braces which mean that the variables inside them can't be seen from the outside. That's why the names of the variables (creature and result) can be repeated in the closures but with different values. If you type these variable names in the console window, you won't get its value because it's hidden by two layers of tinted windows.

The closures all know what the sing() function's variable called firstPart is, because they can see out from their tinted windows.

After the closures come the lines

fly();
spider();
bird();
cat();


The sing() function will call each of these functions in the order they are given. Then the sing() function's work will be done.

57
dmi3y 2013-03-05 08:27.

Okay, talking with a 6-year old child, I would possibly use following associations.

Imagine - you are playing with your little brothers and sisters in the entire house, and you are moving around with your toys and brought some of them into your older brother's room. After a while your brother returned from the school and went to his room, and he locked inside it, so now you could not access toys left there anymore in a direct way. But you could knock the door and ask your brother for that toys. This is called toy's closure; your brother made it up for you, and he is now into outer scope.

Compare with a situation when a door was locked by draft and nobody inside (general function execution), and then some local fire occur and burn down the room (garbage collector:D), and then a new room was build and now you may leave another toys there (new function instance), but never get the same toys which were left in the first room instance.

For an advanced child I would put something like the following. It is not perfect, but it makes you feel about what it is:

function playingInBrothersRoom (withToys) {
// We closure toys which we played in the brother's room. When he come back and lock the door
// your brother is supposed to be into the outer [[scope]] object now. Thanks god you could communicate with him.
var closureToys = withToys || [],
returnToy, countIt, toy; // Just another closure helpers, for brother's inner use.

var brotherGivesToyBack = function (toy) {
// New request. There is not yet closureToys on brother's hand yet. Give him a time.
returnToy = null;
if (toy && closureToys.length > 0) { // If we ask for a specific toy, the brother is going to search for it.

for ( countIt = closureToys.length; countIt; countIt--) {
if (closureToys[countIt - 1] == toy) {
returnToy = 'Take your ' + closureToys.splice(countIt - 1, 1) + ', little boy!';
break;
}
}
returnToy = returnToy || 'Hey, I could not find any ' + toy + ' here. Look for it in another room.';
}
else if (closureToys.length > 0) { // Otherwise, just give back everything he has in the room.
returnToy = 'Behold! ' + closureToys.join(', ') + '.';
closureToys = [];
}
else {
returnToy = 'Hey, lil shrimp, I gave you everything!';
}
console.log(returnToy);
}
return brotherGivesToyBack;
}
// You are playing in the house, including the brother's room.
var toys = ['teddybear', 'car', 'jumpingrope'],

// The door is locked, and the brother came from the school. You could not cheat and take it out directly.

// But you could ask your brother politely, to give it back.
askBrotherForClosuredToy('teddybear'); // Hooray, here it is, teddybear
askBrotherForClosuredToy('ball'); // The brother would not be able to find it.
askBrotherForClosuredToy(); // The brother gives you all the rest
askBrotherForClosuredToy(); // Nothing left in there


As you can see, the toys left in the room are still accessible via the brother and no matter if the room is locked. Here is a jsbin to play around with it.

50
Stupid Stupid 2013-05-17 10:52.

An answer for a six-year-old (assuming he knows what a function is and what a variable is, and what data is):

Functions can return data. One kind of data you can return from a function is another function. When that new function gets returned, all the variables and arguments used in the function that created it don't go away. Instead, that parent function "closes." In other words, nothing can look inside of it and see the variables it used except for the function it returned. That new function has a special ability to look back inside the function that created it and see the data inside of it.

function the_closure() {
var x = 4;
return function () {
return x; // Here, we look back inside the_closure for the value of x
}
}

var myFn = the_closure();
myFn(); //=> 4


Another really simple way to explain it is in terms of scope:

Any time you create a smaller scope inside of a larger scope, the smaller scope will always be able to see what is in the larger scope.

50
srgstm 2012-10-26 08:12.

A function in JavaScript is not just a reference to a set of instructions (as in C language), but it also includes a hidden data structure which is composed of references to all nonlocal variables it uses (captured variables). Such two-piece functions are called closures. Every function in JavaScript can be considered a closure.

Closures are functions with a state. It is somewhat similar to "this" in the sense that "this" also provides state for a function but function and "this" are separate objects ("this" is just a fancy parameter, and the only way to bind it permanently to a function is to create a closure). While "this" and function always live separately, a function cannot be separated from its closure and the language provides no means to access captured variables.

Because all these external variables referenced by a lexically nested function are actually local variables in the chain of its lexically enclosing functions (global variables can be assumed to be local variables of some root function), and every single execution of a function creates new instances of its local variables, it follows that every execution of a function returning (or otherwise transferring it out, such as registering it as a callback) a nested function creates a new closure (with its own potentially unique set of referenced nonlocal variables which represent its execution context).

Also, it must be understood that local variables in JavaScript are created not on the stack frame, but on the heap and destroyed only when no one is referencing them. When a function returns, references to its local variables are decremented, but they can still be non-null if during the current execution they became part of a closure and are still referenced by its lexically nested functions (which can happen only if the references to these nested functions were returned or otherwise transferred to some external code).

An example:

function foo (initValue) {
//This variable is not destroyed when the foo function exits.
//It is 'captured' by the two nested functions returned below.
var value = initValue;

//Note that the two returned functions are created right now.
//If the foo function is called again, it will return
//new functions referencing a different 'value' variable.
return {
getValue: function () { return value; },
setValue: function (newValue) { value = newValue; }
}
}

function bar () {
//foo sets its local variable 'value' to 5 and returns an object with
//two functions still referencing that local variable
var obj = foo(5);

//Extracting functions just to show that no 'this' is involved here
var getValue = obj.getValue;
var setValue = obj.setValue;

setValue(10);

//At this point getValue and setValue functions are destroyed
//(in reality they are destroyed at the next iteration of the garbage collector).
//The local variable 'value' in the foo is no longer referenced by
//anything and is destroyed too.
}

bar();

48
Michael Dziedzic 2015-03-03 08:08.

Perhaps a little beyond all but the most precocious of six-year-olds, but a few examples that helped make the concept of closure in JavaScript click for me.

A closure is a function that has access to another function's scope (its variables and functions). The easiest way to create a closure is with a function within a function; the reason being that in JavaScript a function always has access to its containing function’s scope.

function outerFunction() {
var outerVar = "monkey";

function innerFunction() {
}

innerFunction();
}

outerFunction();

In the above example, outerFunction is called which in turn calls innerFunction. Note how outerVar is available to innerFunction, evidenced by its correctly alerting the value of outerVar.

Now consider the following:

function outerFunction() {
var outerVar = "monkey";

function innerFunction() {
return outerVar;
}

return innerFunction;
}

var referenceToInnerFunction = outerFunction();
alert(referenceToInnerFunction());

referenceToInnerFunction is set to outerFunction(), which simply returns a reference to innerFunction. When referenceToInnerFunction is called, it returns outerVar. Again, as above, this demonstrates that innerFunction has access to outerVar, a variable of outerFunction. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that it retains this access even after outerFunction has finished executing.

And here is where things get really interesting. If we were to get rid of outerFunction, say set it to null, you might think that referenceToInnerFunction would loose its access to the value of outerVar. But this is not the case.

function outerFunction() {
var outerVar = "monkey";

function innerFunction() {
return outerVar;
}

return innerFunction;
}

var referenceToInnerFunction = outerFunction();

outerFunction = null;
alert(referenceToInnerFunction());

But how is this so? How can referenceToInnerFunction still know the value of outerVar now that outerFunction has been set to null?

The reason that referenceToInnerFunction can still access the value of outerVar is because when the closure was first created by placing innerFunction inside of outerFunction, innerFunction added a reference to outerFunction’s scope (its variables and functions) to its scope chain. What this means is that innerFunction has a pointer or reference to all of outerFunction’s variables, including outerVar. So even when outerFunction has finished executing, or even if it is deleted or set to null, the variables in its scope, like outerVar, stick around in memory because of the outstanding reference to them on the part of the innerFunction that has been returned to referenceToInnerFunction. To truly release outerVar and the rest of outerFunction’s variables from memory you would have to get rid of this outstanding reference to them, say by setting referenceToInnerFunction to null as well.

//////////

Two other things about closures to note. First, the closure will always have access to the last values of its containing function.

function outerFunction() {
var outerVar = "monkey";

function innerFunction() {
}

outerVar = "gorilla";

innerFunction();
}

outerFunction();

Second, when a closure is created, it retains a reference to all of its enclosing function’s variables and functions; it doesn’t get to pick and choose. And but so, closures should be used sparingly, or at least carefully, as they can be memory intensive; a lot of variables can be kept in memory long after a containing function has finished executing.

46
mjmoody383 2013-03-09 17:24.

I'd simply point them to the Mozilla Closures page. It's the best, most concise and simple explanation of closure basics and practical usage that I've found. It is highly recommended to anyone learning JavaScript.

And yes, I'd even recommend it to a 6-year old -- if the 6-year old is learning about closures, then it's logical they're ready to comprehend the concise and simple explanation provided in the article.

### ケイト・ブランシェットは3日間一緒に夫と一緒に寝て、25年経ってもまだ夫と結婚しています

ケイト・ブランシェットは、夫に会ったとき、典型的な交際のアドバイスに逆らいました。

### マイケルシーンが非営利の俳優である理由

マイケルシーンは非営利の俳優ですが、それは正確にはどういう意味ですか？

### 「たどりつけば」をオンラインでストリーミングできない理由

ノーザンエクスポージャーが90年代の最も人気のある番組の1つになった理由を確認するには、Blu-rayまたはDVDプレーヤーをほこりで払う必要があります。

### ドミニカのボイリング湖：アクセスは簡単ではありませんが、ハイキングする価値があります

ドミニカのボイリング湖は、世界で2番目に大きいボイリング湖です。そこにたどり着くまでのトレッキングは大変で長いですが、努力する価値は十分にあります。

### 私たちの水をきれいに保つのを助けるためにあなたの髪を寄付してください

サロンからのヘアトリミングや個人的な寄付は、油流出を吸収して環境を保護するのに役立つマットとして再利用できます。

### カナダの元桂冠詩人が、史上最高の文化の盗用でトゥパックとマヤアンジェロウから盗んだ

トゥパックシャクール（ティムモーゼンフェルダー/ゲッティイメージズ）; マヤアンジェロウ（マーティンゴッドウィン/ゲッティイメージズ）移動、テイラースウィフト。ケンドールとカイリーは、必要な数の座席を持っています。

### Zendaya Wishes Boyfriend Tom Holland Happy Birthday with Cuddly Photo: He 'Makes Me the Happiest'

Zendaya shared a sweet photo in honor of boyfriend Tom Holland's 26th birthday Wednesday

### 小さな女性：脳卒中を患った後に病院から解放されたアトランタのジューシーな赤ちゃん：「まだ癒し」

シーレン「Ms.JuicyBaby」ピアソンは、先月脳卒中で入院した後、「もう一度たくさんのことをする方法を学ばなければならない」ため、言語療法を受けていることを明らかにしました。

### エマストーンは彼女のクリフサイドマリブビーチハウスを420万ドルでリストアップしています—中を見てください！

オスカー受賞者の世紀半ばの家には、3つのベッドルーム、2つのバス、オーシャンフロントの景色があります。

### ジーニー・メイ・ジェンキンスは、母乳育児の経験の中で、彼女は「本当に、本当に落ち込んでいる」と言います

ジーニー・メイ・ジェンキンスは、生後4か月の娘、モナコに母乳育児をしていると語った。

### 投資ノート：Bioscout AU\$300万シード

Bioscoutは、農家を運転席に置くという使命を負っています。Artesian（GrainInnovate）やUniseedと並んで、最新のシードラウンドでチームを支援できることをうれしく思います。問題真菌症による重大な作物の損失は、農民にとって試練であることが証明されています。

### スタートアップ資金調達環境：タイのスタートアップエコシステムの次は何ですか？

2021年は、世界的なベンチャーキャピタル（VC）の資金調達にとって記録的な年でした。DealStreetAsiaによると、東南アジアも例外ではなく、この地域では年間で記録的な25の新しいユニコーンが採掘されました。